Go with the flow: endless sweeping trails + big skies on our mountain bike tour Yukon
The Yukon Territory is located in Canada’s wild north-west, bordering Alaska. Famous for the Klondike Gold Rush of the 1800s, the outdoor-loving locals have taken advantage of the abandoned trails beaten by the prospectors and turned them into their own kind of gold; mountain biking gold, which is yours to discover on our mountain bike tour Yukon.
Adventure photographers Dan Barham and Trevor Clark travelled to the Yukon to experience riding the huge network of pristine singletrack, and being spoiled by delicious local home-made food in the glorious surroundings of our lodge. Click through the photo gallery to see what’s in store for you on our mountain bike tour Yukon, Canada…
With around 800km of trails in the city limits of Whitehorse, the capital of the Yukon, you won’t ride the same piece of trail twice on this week-long Mountain bike tour Yukon in Canada. Not unless you really want to! Your local Yukon mountain bike guides will take you high into the alpine mountains, where you’ll be greeted by knock-out views and may even be lucky enough to have close encounters with wild caribou and grizzly bears.
The Yukon really is a land of unspoiled wilderness and adventure, and in order to keep it that way we work with local companies who are committed to responsible and sustainable tourism.
Tour dates 2017
- 8 – 15 Jul (6 PLACES)
- 19 – 26 Aug (TRIP FULL!)
Tour dates 2018
- 30 Jun – 7 Jul
- 11 – 18 August
Contact us if you would like to create your own private group tour.
In addition to enjoying sweet flowing singletrack in the wild north of Canada, here are some other special moments you can look forward to on your mountain bike tour Yukon:
- Soaking in the hot tub with a cold post-ride beer
- Being spoiled by delicious and healthy home-made meals
- Spotting eagles as you glide on the Yukon River in a canoe
- Learning about the intriguing history of the gold rush
- Catching a glimpse (if you’re lucky!) of a grizzly bear
- Marvelling at the 360° panoramic views across the Territory
Mountain Bike Tour Yukon Itinerary
The flow of the itinerary for your mountain bike tour Yukon has been designed to become progressively more technical throughout the course of the week. Your guides will coach you through each new challenge so that you make the most of your Yukon experience and, in addition, go home a more technically skilled and confident mountain biker.
- +Arrival in Canada - refresh + prepare for your adventure
If you’re travelling a long way or across several time zones to Canada then we would recommend arriving in Whitehorse a day or two early to allow your body to adjust and to make sure any flight or luggage days don’t spoil your trip.
- +Day 1 - Welcome to Whitehorse!
Your mountain bike guide will greet you at the airport and take you to downtown Whitehorse where you will have some free time to look around before we meet you at 4.30pm to transfer you to our mountain ranch, 30 minutes’ drive away.
Over a welcoming and delicious Yukon-style barbecue and some locally-crafted beers we’ll go over the detailed itinerary for your week of unforgettable mountain biking in Canada. There will be time to build and tune your bikes as well.
- +Day 2 - Grey mountain trail network
Today we will ride the Grey Mountain trail network for your first days ride on your mountain bike tour Yukon. This is a cross-country day with a flair towards gravity assisted mountain biking and smooth, flowing singletrack.
Your guide will pick the perfect location for our home-made lunch, about half way through the ride. Spectacular views of the Whitehorse valley and the coastal mountains near Carcross accompany us throughout the ride. Any technical climbs are immediately rewarded with awesome downhills.
Expect to pedal, laugh, and have the adrenalin pumping all day! This is what world-class singletrack mountain biking is all about.
Distance cycled: 30kms (app. 5 hours)
- +Day 3 - Mount McIntyre + the Whitehorse Valley
Today’s ride will be a combination of classic favourites and new purpose-built trails courtesy of the local Parks and Recreation Trail Crew. We will start in the alpine of Mount McIntyre, admiring the views of the Whitehorse valley and towards Fish Lake. We can even see all the way to Lake Laberge, the lake made famous in the Robert Service poem The Cremation of Sam McGee.
As we start the descent back to Whitehorse, we will ride through many different ecosystems, starting in the alpine right down to the valley floor. While making our way back into Whitehorse, we will ride through parts of the 24 Hours of Light mountain bike race course and check out our new mountain bike skills park. As we pedal to our meeting spot in downtown Whitehorse, you will be amazed at the amount of distance you have covered today on your bike!
Distance cycled: 30kms (app. 5 hours)
- +Day 4 - Mountain Hero Mine Trail
We will drive to the nearby First Nation village of Carcross. This is an alpine day with outstanding 360 degree mountain views! You’ll have a shuttle to take you a good way up the access road, but there is still some stiff climbing ahead before you can reap the rewards of the awesome descent to come. After a brief lunch at the summit, we will explore the old wooden mining relics before we descend down the Mountain Hero Mine trail.
This trail follows the tram line that the historic mine created to get supplies up and down the mountain. This stupendous singletrack descent will have your braking fingers aching and have you laughing out loud as we reconvene at the side of Windy Arm Lake.
Please note: This trail, more than any other, is especially dependent on weather conditions. Your guide will check the conditions in the morning and make the decision as to whether you can go ahead with the ride, or leave it for another day.
Distance cycled: 20kms (app. 6 hours)
- +Day 5 - Paddling the Yukon River
After another fantastic breakfast we will head out for a paddle on the famous Yukon River. We’ll set off in downtown Whitehorse and paddle downstream to the point where the Yukon and Takhini rivers meet. You can expect to see many eagles, hawks, and gulls playing in the wind tunnels created by the tall sand cliffs that line the river’s route.
After paddling on the river for a few hours, we have several options for the rest of the afternoon. Sampling fine locally made Yukon Brewing Co., spend the afternoon exploring Whitehorse or add on a short, late afternoon hike in the alpine.
- +Day 6 - Montana Mountain Trail
After breakfast we will drive to the village of Carcross to ride the lower Montana Mountain trail network. This mountain has recently undergone a transformation from a silver mining hot spot in bygone years to a current mountain biking paradise! Funded through the local Carcross Tagish First Nation, the Singletrack for Success program hired local youth to create mountain biking trails for the betterment of the community.
Set in some of Canada’s most beautiful scenery, these professionally built trails snake their way down the mountain and finish at the edge of Bennett Lake. After a full day of riding, we will return to the yurts in time to enjoy happy hour before another delicious meal.
Distance cycled: 20kms (app. 5 hours)
- +Day 7 - Yukon River Trail
Today’s ride takes in one of the Yukon’s ‘must-do’s’. The Yukon River is a highlight of any trip to Whitehorse. A deep emerald green colour, it seems almost unreal.
We will maneuver our way through the trails to the follow the Yukon River as it flows to back to town. We will bike past the historical former town site of Canyon City, where Klondike stampeders stopped and created a makeshift canvas tent city while they pondered how to cross the rapids without losing all their gear. These same rapids were said to look like the manes of white horses, which is how the capital city of the Yukon received its name.
Distance cycled: 25kms (app. 4-5 hours)
- +Day 8 - Departure
Sadly, this is the end of your fabulous mountain bike tour Yukon in northern Canada. After our final breakfast and delicious Midnight Sun coffee to go, your guide will transport you back to the airport in time to catch your flight back to reality!
Please note: Our mountain bike tour Yukon is a living thing, being influenced by multiple factors such as changing weather conditions, group riding abilities, trail damage, to name a few. Your local guides are experts in guiding mountain bikers in the Yukon and will be continually assessing these factors and making tweaks to the itinerary where necessary to ensure that every member of the group has the best possible experience.
- +Tour Price
Mountain Bike Tour Yukon Price
£1,780 / $2,670 USD per person (ex. flights, based on two sharing a room)
We welcome solo travellers on our adventures and if you are happy to share a room with another solo rider of the same sex you do not need to add the single supplement. If, however, you wish to have a room by yourself, a single supplement of £420/ $630 USD will be payable.
H+I Adventures is bonded by the Association of Bonded Travel Organisers Trust Limited (ABTOT), so you can be sure that when you book with us your money will be safe.
- Services of a fully-qualified, English and French speaking expert mountain bike guide for the duration of the trip
- All meals and snacks (hand-made at our mountain ranch), starting with dinner on day 1 and ending with breakfast on day 8
- Two complimentary drinks (glass of wine or bottle of beer) per person per day
- Seven nights’ private yurt or mountain lodge accommodation
- One-day guided canoe trip on Yukon River
- Back-up vehicles for the duration of the trip
- All group safety equipment
- Airport transfers – these are included for flights arriving/departing between 08:00 and 21:00, however if your flight arrives/departs outside these hours there will be a fee of $75 CAD each way payable direct to your hosts
- Global Rescue emergency evacuation services
- International/ domestic flights
- Travel and activity insurance
- Personal safety and cycling equipment
- Bike hire – we can arrange hire of a good quality full suspension bike at a cost of £330 / $495 USD for the duration of the trip
- Tips in restaurants and hotels
- Alcoholic beverages (over and above your two complimentary drinks per day)
- Any other items not listed as included
- +Skill + fitness levels required
Does this sound like you? Your vacation time is precious and we want to be absolutely sure that you’re making the most of it, by finding the perfect adventure for you. Be honest with yourself, if this adventure isn’t right for you, we have other tours that may well be a better fit for your mountain biking experience and ability.
Please note: The skill level required reflects an overall rating for the trails on the trip but you should expect to find sections and obstacles that push your ability levels. You will also be expected to follow the training plan provided by us, to prepare yourself for the demands of the trip.
- You have been mountain biking regularly for at least two years
- You can brake, use gears and corner with confidence
- You have good bike handling skills, and are confident riding rough double track and non-technical singletrack
- You are competent at riding undulating trails with moderate climbs and descents on both double and singletrack, but tend to get off and walk technical singletrack sections
- You ride approx. four times per month throughout your biking season
- You have a good level of bike fitness, exercising at least three times every week throughout the year, for an hour at a time
- You can ride a mountain bike for up to six hours a day at a moderate pace, with snack and photo stops, for three or more consecutive days
- You can tackle two or three fairly significant climbs a day, up to 600 metres each
Typical trails you’ll be riding
- Double track: undulating forest tracks made up of hard-packed dirt and fist-sized rocks
- Singletrack: plenty of fast, flowing singletrack, but you will also encounter golf ball- to head-sized rocks, bedrock sections, and rooty sections
- The trails on our mountain bike tour Yukon are a mix of buff, purpose-built trails and natural trails that link old disused mines with old settlements across the region
- The trail surface may be soft, potentially muddy at times, but generally the trails in the Yukon are dry and dusty, even sandy in places
- +Arrival + departure details
Your mountain bike tour Yukon will start on Day 1 at Whitehorse airport or your H+I recommended hotel. Your guide and/or driver will meet you in the arrivals area of Whitehorse airport, or the hotel lobby if you have arrived early, and he/she will be holding an H+I Adventures sign.
You should arrive no later than 16:30 on the first day of your adventure, and aim to depart no earlier than 10:00 on the final day.
If your flight arrives earlier on day 1, your guide/driver will collect you at Whitehorse airport then drop you downtown for some free time to explore the city, before meeting the group again at 16:30 to transfer to our mountain ranch.
- +Travelling to the Yukon
You can fly into Vancouver, Calgary, or Edmonton from all over the world, then connect with one of the Air North daily flights to Whitehorse.
There are also weekly direct flights from Frankfurt, Germany to Whitehorse in the Yukon with Condor.
You must book your bike on to your flight in advance (except on Air North flights), otherwise you could face a heavy charge at the airport. Here are some handy hints and tips on travelling by air with your bike.
From March 15, 2016, most visitors entering Canada will require an Electronic Travel Authorisation (eTA) or a visitor visa. Please check the Canadian Government website for more details before booking your mountain bike tour Yukon, Canada.
- +Preparing yourself + your bike for the trip
Please read the full kit list before you start packing for your mountain bike tour Yukon, Canada, to make sure that you have everything you need!
The ideal bike for your mountain bike tour Yukon is a good quality full-suspension mountain bike with around 120mm of travel front and rear.
To get the most out of your mountain bike tour Yukon you should plan some training in advance of your tour, and it is essential that you ensure that your bike has been properly serviced before the trip.
- +Your mountain bike guides in the Yukon
Our mountain bike guides are qualified to the very highest level in Canada. This includes first-aid and for this type of trip they also hold a Wilderness Expedition Leader Award, which means that they have the knowledge and experience to lead a group safely in these very remote, wild and unpredictable parts of Canada.
In addition to formal qualifications, our guides have years of experience in the saddle on the Yukon trails and will be able to enhance your holiday with facts and fables on local history, flora and fauna.
The team is made up of local riders who are experts in their fields, superb local guides and genuinely nice people. Their passion for our mountain bike tour Yukon is truly infectious and they’re completely committed to responsible tourism and making sure that our business is run as sustainably as possible. Meet your mountain bike guide in the Yukon…
- +Accommodation + food
One of the things that sets our holidays apart from other mountain bike tours around the world is the excellent accommodation we use, and the Yukon is no exception. We understand that when you’ve had a big day in the saddle on the Yukon trails, you want a warm welcome, hot shower and a comfortable place to relax and unwind – and there’s no better place to relax than in the unique, informal environment of our mountain ranch!
Your accommodation in the Yukon will be comfortable yurts or our new en-suite mountain lodge rooms, which are powered by solar panels that soak up the long hours of Yukon summer sun to give you lovely hot showers. Bathroom facilities are shared between the two bedroom yurts, with two toilets and two showers for four people.
The ranch is all about the group being together and having a great time with old and new friends. The main lodge contains living and dining facilities and two en-suite bedrooms, and then there are our bedroom yurts, each for two people. Your mountain accommodation is set in the woods between Whitehorse and Carcross.
You will be spoiled all week with delicious home-cooked meals and snacks, made by your host from fresh, locally-sourced Yukon produce.
Please note: There are two – very friendly – dogs at the lodge, so if you are allergic to dogs this may not be the perfect adventure for you.
- +Health + safety
- No special vaccinations are required for visiting the Yukon
- The Yukon is a vibrant, natural habitat for many species of wildlife, including: grizzly bears, black bears, caribou, moose, elk, and wolves. Your guide has many years of experience and wilderness training in the Yukon environment, so you MUST follow his instructions at all times while mountain biking in the area
- Your guide is a trained first-aider/first-responder, but it is your responsibility to ensure that you are managing your own health and safety at all times on your mountain bike tour Yukon
You should always consult your own doctor or physician before travelling to new countries to seek their advice on matters concerning your health abroad.
Your health and safety is on tour our top priority so when you travel with us you also have the peace of mind knowing that you will be covered by Global Rescue emergency medical and evacuation services.
- +Currency + foreign exchange
The currency in the Yukon is the Canadian dollar (CAD).
All meals are included in the cost of your trip, so you need only bring spending money with you for alcoholic drinks, gifts to take home, and other sundry expenses. There are cash machines and banks in Whitehorse.
It is not compulsory to tip your guides and drivers in Canada, but if you feel you have had a good experience on your tour, you can tip at your discretion.
- +Holiday insurance
You are required as a condition of booking to be insured against medical and personal accident risks. In this policy you must include cover for mountain biking and we recommend that you take out a policy which covers cancellation and baggage.
We work closely with WorldNomads whose policies are specially designed for mountain bike holidays. You can arrange your insurance cover directly with them and we ask that you send us your policy details.
Please note: if you have arranged your own holiday insurance, you must bring a copy of your policy with you on your mountain bike tour Yukon, Canada.
Please note: a mountain biking adventure is a living thing, being influenced by multiple factors such as changing weather conditions, group riding abilities, trail damage, to name a few. Your local guides are experts in guiding mountain bikers in the Yukon and will be continually assessing these factors and making tweaks to the itinerary where necessary to ensure that every member of the group has the best possible experience.
Mountain Bike Tour Yukon reviews
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It was all so awesome, the people, nature, food, history and a very good expresso in carcross at the cariboo crossing. Thanks David for the great time you and your team gave to us and thanks H+I for the super organisation.
What a great trip! Super fun and flowy single trails, perfect scenery and lots of diversification. David was a great guide, helpful and supporting. I also enjoyed the accommodation and the perfect food was incredible. Thanks to H+I for the perfect organization of the trip!
OK, the beautiful flow singletrack in great scenery is a given. Add on top of that uplifts to take the sting out of every day, excellent guides who bring the history and culture of the region to life, delicious food right on the back of the Yukon culinary Festival, luxurious accommodation, plus two nights of the best aurora light show. This is a must do, and I will be back!
This was my first time to the Yukon – something I have wanted to do for a long time – and a place I hope to return to many times in the years to come. I had expected to love the Yukon – and it did not disappoint. But the H+I experience absolutely exceeded expectations. Great attention to detail. Outstanding guides. Perfect accommodations. Best food I've ever had on vacation. And the riding was spectacular! Can't wait to go back!
What a fun week - some of the best trails I've ever ridden - technical, cross country, climbing, and downhill - White Horse and Carcross have something for every riding style and skill level. Each day brought new challenges and fun for everyone in the group.The ranch experience only made things better - amazing food and lodging were just icing on the cake with this trip. I'd recommend this experience as a 'must-do' trip. The H+I team in the Yukon made this a very fun experience for the entire group - everything was well planned and executed.
Just look at the Yukon...and you know why you have to bike there...book with H+I and you'll get a perfect organized trip, excellent food, brilliant guides, awesome trails....just enjoy 😉 ..some decisions won't be regretted..promised
H+I Adventures is a wonderful company to travel with. The tour of the Yukon was outstanding with great accommodations, super guides, and fun, fast, wooded single track. I would love to travel and bike with them at another destination. H+I Adventures were especially helpful when I had to change my departure date due to an injury.
What a holiday! The Yukon lived up to all expectations and more... The countryside was beautiful, the trails varied and the accommodation just perfect after a great day biking. Not forgetting how well fed we were throughout (with no problem catering for me being coeliac). Thanks to the H+I team I've come back a better rider - more eager than ever to get back out on the trails in Scotland! Think I'll need to get planning another trip...
Another incredible holiday thanks to the wonderful team at H&I.
Everyday was perfectly planned, all we had to do was ride and enjoy. The views were breathtaking and what fun we had each day and night! Thank you Catherine and H&I for another trip of a lifetime. Can't wait for the next one!
What a trip! If you want amazing food, amazing views, amazing people and amazing biking, this is probably for you!
Sylvain and the crew are brilliant, the ranch is such a nice place to relax at the end of the day and the quality of the food is something else - you wont go hungry!
The trails are fast and flowy, loads of fun and just make you want to do them again. Which I probably will.
The second time was even better. Endless flowy trails, fun climbs, friendly Canadian trees, and Montana mountain with unbelievable descents. The Ranch is such a friendly place, the food is incredible (thanks Marsha!!!) and I love sleeping in the yurt. Sylvain and his team are just wonderful - and of course the support from Euan and Catherine is always outstanding.
I definitely will go back!
It was an amazing holiday, the yurts were comfy and the people really friendly and the food was great.
Oh, and the the trails? Endless flowy, swoopy singletrack with stunning views round every corner! A few 'fun' climbs followed by some great long descents.
I definitely want to go back!
My mountain biking holiday in the Yukon with Euan, Sylvain and the group was amazing in every way. A full week of nothing but awesome mountain biking with incredible views, wonderful food and I've never slept so well! Our group was so much fun and our guides gave me some great biking lessons. I can't wait to go back next summer!
An 'awesome' week thanks to Euan and the wonderful Yukon team, who were incredibly welcoming, supportive and flexible. No pressure whatsoever when it came to the trails - it's all about having fun and learning when you want to.
Epic scenery, cosy yurts, and Marsha's legendary home cooking - I'm still salivating over the fresh Alaskan sockeye salmon marinaded in soy and maple syrup sauce.
We didn't want to leave!
It was more than perfect - I definitely need to come back to the Yukon and Yurtville and ride these spectacular and flowy trails again and again and again 🙂
Sylvain, Marsha and the team did everything to make sure we had a good time - and we certainly did have that!
Amazing rides, fantastic food, great company , comfortable beds, hot shower, Wi-Fi = fantastic week!
Frequently asked questions (FAQs) mountain bike tour Yukon Canada
- Q. How many people will be in the group?
We only run small group adventures to ensure that everyone has the best experience possible, and there will be a maximum of 12 people in each group. The minimum number of people we require to run our mountain bike tour Yukon Canada is four.
- Q. What’s the age range of people who come on this holiday?
Our mountain bike tour Yukon caters for a wide age range; typically between 30- and 55-years-old, but age is simply a state of mind, as they say, and we welcome anyone over the age of 18! As long as you have a good level of physical fitness and good bike handling skills you will enjoy this mountain bike vacation no matter what your age.
- Q. What style of mountain biking vacation is it?
This mountain bike tour Yukon is a guided mountain bike tour, ideal for intermediate mountain bikers. Riding here, in the vast Canadian wilderness, you’ll experience some tough climbs and technical descents, as well as miles and miles of lovely flowing singletrack through the high alpine, pristine boreal forests, along the Yukon river, and on old prospectors’ trails .
- Q. How far will we be mountain biking each day?
The distances we cover each day range from 20km to 35km, in accordance with the technical difficulty of each trail. Each evening your guides will chat with you about the following day’s mountain biking and give you an idea of the sorts of trails you can look forward to. If there’s anything you feel anxious about, your guides will be happy to discuss it with you.
- Q. Do we have to carry all our gear with us?
No, you only need to carry a 20 litre day pack with you whilst riding. You will be staying in the same accommodation for seven nights, so you can unpack and leave your luggage at the accommodation.
- Q. What if I come across a section of trail I can’t ride?
Your guide will be very happy to give you some bike skills training during your trip to help improve your confidence and your enjoyment of your mountain bike tour Yukon. If there is a section that you would prefer not to ride, then you can simply hop off your bike and walk. You won’t be the only one to walk certain sections and it’s not a competition in biking ability; it’s a mountain biking holiday!
- Q. Who will be guiding us?
Your mountain bike guides are local to the Yukon and experienced professionals who have a real passion for mountain biking and for the culture and wild landscape of this region of Canada. Your safety is their number one priority, closely followed by your enjoyment of the tour. They will always be on-hand to answer any questions or requests you may have throughout your trip. Your mountain bike guide in the Yukon is also bi-lingual in French and English. Meet your mountain bike guide in the Yukon…
- Q. What sort of accommodation will we be staying in?
On this mountain bike tour Yukon you will be staying in private bedroom yurts or lodge bedrooms at our mountain ranch situated between the two best biking areas in the Yukon – Whitehorse and Carcross.
On the property, we have a main lodge where everyone is welcome to relax and enjoy the views over the Grey Ridge mountains. All of your meals are served in the main lodge. Our interior rooms have private bathrooms and superb views of the mountain peaks from their balconies.
Our spacious and fully-furnished bedroom yurts and prospector tents are within close proximity to the shared bathroom facilities. Each comes with comfortable beds, gorgeous duvets and linens to ensure a great night’s sleep! You can also take advantage of the on-site, complimentary wi-fi, cell service and electrical plug-ins for computers, cell phones, cameras etc.
- Q. Which meals are included in the tour price?
All meals and snacks are included in the tour price, and prepared for you from locally-sourced produce by your host at our mountain ranch. Food is an extremely important part of our mountain bike tour Yukon and you’ll be spoiled every day with delicious, fresh, healthy meals and snacks.
- Q. What type of mountain bike is best for the trip?
A good quality full suspension mountain bike with 120mm travel front and rear will be ideal for this mountain bike tour Yukon. The terrain you will be riding is rough in places and you will feel more comfortable on a full suspension bike for the duration of the trip.
It is possible to ride every day on a hard tail, so if this is your preference, then feel free to come with your hard tail.
If you wish to travel to Canada with your own bike, we have some handy tips on how to travel by air with your bike. We can also arrange bike hire for you for the duration of the trip.
- Q. What clothes and kit should I bring?
You must make sure that you have plenty of layers of breathable clothing to ensure that you are always warm enough and can remove a layer if you get too hot, and you should bring a waterproof jacket. You should also bring cycling shorts/trousers, gloves, padded undershorts, specific shoes for cycling, sun cream, insect spray, and Advil or Ibuprofen. Read the full kit list to find out what you need to pack for your mountain bike tour Yukon, Canada.
- Q. Will I see bears?
There is a chance that you will see a gizzly or black bear during your mountain bike tour in Canada. Your guide is fully wilderness trained and highly experienced at guiding groups of mountain bikers through the Yukon back country, and it is imperative that you follow the instructions of your guide at all times whilst out on the trails.
- Q. Will I see the Northern Lights?
In July, definitely not. There’s more chance of seeing the lights on our late August adventure, but there’s never a guarantee with Mother Nature, so don’t pin your hopes on it!
- Q. Can I bring a drone with me?
Unfortunately not. We are working hard to provide each and every customer who rides with us an unparalleled mountain bike experience in every destination we ride. This takes years of experience, riding and planning to get right, and a drone adds a very real danger to the group’s riding experience and health & safety.